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Type 2 diabetes - Overview

Type 2 diabetes is a condition that causes the level of glucose (sugar) in the blood to become higher than normal.

It can be serious if not looked after but it is very treatable and for some people can be prevented or delayed.

Symptoms

Type 2 diabetes can cause symptoms like excessive thirst, needing to pee a lot and tiredness. Some people may not notice any symptoms.

If diabetes goes undetected or is not treated it can increase your risk of developing serious problems with your:

  • eyes
  • heart
  • feet
  • nerves
  • kidneys
  • liver

Read more about symptoms of Type 2 diabetes

Read more about diagnosing Type 2 diabetes

Causes

Type 2 diabetes is caused by problems with a hormone in the body called insulin.

Insulin controls the amount of glucose (sugar) in the blood, keeping it at healthy levels. Insulin is produced by the pancreas - a gland behind the stomach.

Type 2 diabetes occurs when blood glucose stays too high. This can happen when the body does not produce enough insulin. It can also happen when the body cannot properly use the insulin it produces.

We get glucose from the carbohydrates in our food and drinks. Normally glucose enters our bloodstream, our pancreas makes insulin and our insulin then allows the glucose to move into the body's cells to be used for energy. If we cannot make enough insulin, or if our insulin is not working properly, the glucose cannot enter the cells around the body. It stays in the blood and blood glucose levels become higher than normal.

There are some things that put you at risk of developing Type 2 diabetes. It's often linked to being overweight, inactive, or having a parent, brother or sister with diabetes. It is helpful to know what the risks are so it can be prevented or delayed.

Read more about the risks of developing Type 2 diabetes

Treatment

The things that you do on a day to day basis can make a huge difference to the treatment of Type 2 diabetes.

Treatment includes:

Quitting smoking and limiting alcohol also help.

You will need to have more regular check-ups to ensure your health is not affected by diabetes. For example check-ups with your GP, diabetes eye checks and checking your feet.

You will also be encouraged to take an active role in your own care.

As part of your treatment you will be invited to take part in a free diabetes support course.

If you are taking diabetes medicine you can recover some of the costs through the Long-Term Illness Scheme.

Read more about treatment for Type 2 diabetes.

page last reviewed: 22/10/2020
next review due: 22/10/2023

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