Heartburn is a burning feeling in the chest. It's caused by stomach acid moving up towards the throat (acid reflux). If it keeps happening, it's called gastro-oesophageal reflux disease (GORD).
Symptoms of acid reflux
The main symptoms of acid reflux are:
- heartburn – a burning sensation in the middle of your chest
- an unpleasant sour taste in your mouth, caused by stomach acid
You may also have:
- a cough or hiccups that keep coming back
- a hoarse voice
- bad breath
- bloating and feeling sick
Symptoms are often worse after eating, when lying down and when bending over.
Causes of heartburn and acid reflux
Lots of people get heartburn from time to time. There's often no obvious reason why.
Sometimes it's caused or made worse by:
- certain food and drink – such as coffee, tomatoes, alcohol, chocolate and fatty or spicy foods
- being overweight
- stress and anxiety
- some medicines, such as anti-inflammatory painkillers (like ibuprofen)
- a hiatus hernia – when part of your stomach moves up into your chest
Preventing heartburn and acid reflux
Simple lifestyle changes can help stop or reduce heartburn.
eat smaller, more frequent meals
raise one end of your bed 10 to 20cm - put something under your bed or mattress so your chest and head are above the level of your waist. This can stop stomach acid from moving up towards your throat
do not have food or drink that triggers your symptoms
do not eat within 3 or 4 hours before bed
do not wear clothes that are tight around your waist
do not smoke
do not drink too much alcohol
do not stop taking any prescribed medicine without speaking to a doctor first
When to see a pharmacist
Speak to a pharmacist for advice if you keep getting heartburn.
They can recommend medicines called antacids that can help ease your symptoms.
It's best to take these with food or soon after eating. This is when you're most likely to get heartburn. They may also work for longer if you take them with food.
When to see your GP
See your GP if:
- lifestyle changes and pharmacy medicines are not helping
- you have heartburn most days for 3 weeks or more
- you have other symptoms, like food getting stuck in your throat, often being sick or losing weight for no reason
Your GP can provide stronger treatments and help rule out more serious causes.
Treating heartburn and acid reflux
Your GP may prescribe a medicine called a proton pump inhibitor (PPI). This reduces how much acid your stomach makes. PPIs include omeprazole and lansoprazole.
You'll usually need to take this type of medicine for 4 or 8 weeks, depending on how serious your acid reflux is.
Go back to the GP if your symptoms return after stopping your medicine. You may need a long-term prescription.
Tests and surgery for heartburn and acid reflux
If medicines do not help or your symptoms are severe, your GP may refer you to a specialist for:
- tests to find out what's causing your symptoms, such as a gastroscopy (a thin tube with a camera to look inside your throat and stomach)
- an operation on your stomach to stop acid reflux – called a laparoscopic fundoplication
Content supplied by the NHS and adapted for Ireland by the HSE