Reptiles are not suitable in a house where there are children under the age of 5.
Reptiles can include:
Turtles, in particular, can be a danger to children under 5 and to babies. This is because of the infections they can carry.
All reptiles can carry a range of bacteria, viruses, parasites and worms. These can be passed on and can be dangerous to your child.
Make sure that you and your child wash your hands carefully after handling:
- the pet
- its cage
- any surfaces or equipment that may have been in contact with its poo
This is the most important thing you can do to keep your child safe.
If your child has a weak immune system they should avoid all contact with reptiles.
Reptiles and health risks to your child
The bacteria and illnesses that reptiles could pass on to your child include salmonella and botulism. These are the biggest risks.
Salmonella is caused by bacteria. The illness causes diarrhoea, vomiting, headache, fever and tummy cramps. It can also result in blood infections and dehydration.
Salmonella is a risk with all types of reptiles. Washing your hands reduces the risk.
This means making sure that you and your child wash your hands after handling your pet and:
- their poo
- their food
- their cage
- any surfaces or equipment that might have been in contact with poo
Botulism is a serious and life-threatening illness which can cause paralysis and death. It is caused by a germ called Clostridium, which is common in reptiles. Babies and children under the age of 1 are particularly vulnerable to botulism.
Symptoms of botulism in babies include:
- an inability to suck
- a floppy head
- floppy muscles
- weak crying
- poor reflexes
- heavy eyelids and flat, unfocused eyes
Emergency action required: Go to your nearest hospital emergency department (ED) if:
- your child has any symptoms of botulism and you have a reptile
Tell the triage, medical and nursing staff that you are a reptile-owner.
Other infections have been linked with keeping reptiles as pets. Most are treatable but some can be very serious.
- campylobacteriosis (a bowel infection)
- leptospirosis (a liver disease)
- trichinellosis (a disease of muscles, the nervous system and the heart and lungs)
Turtles and health risks to your child
The bacterium that causes botulism is common in aquatic reptiles. Aquatic replies are reptiles that live in water, such as turtles. Exposure to turtles or to turtle feed was the likely cause in at least 2 cases of infant botulism in Ireland.
If you own a turtle, wash your hands immediately after touching:
- the turtle
- anything the turtle has touched
- the turtle's water
Turtle germs are very dangerous to babies and children under the age of 5.
If you are around babies or children, wash your hands immediately after touching a turtle or its water.
Wash your hands before visiting a home and when arriving at a home with children present.
Teach your child to be safe around reptiles
Watch your child at all times around a reptile. Reptiles should not be kept in child-care facilities or creches.
Keep your reptile in its tank or cage. Do not let it loose.
eat, drink or smoke while handling reptiles, reptile tanks or reptile equipment
allow children to kiss reptiles or share food or drink with them
If a reptile bites or scratches your child
If a reptile bites or scratches your child:
- wash the wound immediately in warm running water
- dry it carefully
- cover with a clean plaster
- contact your GP for medical advice
Tell your child to tell you if they have been scratched or bitten.
Snakebites and your child
Snakebites are not common in Ireland, but they do happen.
Emergency action required: Go to your nearest ED immediately or call 112 or 999 if:
- you or your child are bitten by a snake
Pet snakes sometimes bite if they are:
- handled incorrectly
Some pet snakes are venomous. They can inject venom (toxins produced by the snake) as they bite. A venomous snake may also bite without injecting any venom. This is called a 'dry' bite.
A dry bite may cause:
- pain or infection where the snake fangs break the skin
If a snake injects venom through its bite it can cause more serious symptoms, including:
- nausea (feeling sick)
- dizziness, fainting and shock
- paralysis of the muscles
If a snake bites your child
Your child may be admitted to hospital where the bite can be assessed by:
- monitoring your child's symptoms, for example, any swelling or redness that appears
- monitoring your child's heart rate and temperature
- carrying out blood tests
The blood tests will check the effects of venom on:
- red and white blood cells
They will also check on different systems of the body, such as your kidneys or muscles.
In more serious snakebite cases, an electrocardiogram (ECG) may be used. This is to monitor your child's heart function.
If you feed your reptile with frozen or live rodents, be aware that these rodents can carry germs. These germs can make you or your child sick.
Wash your hands after handling and preparing this food. Also wash your hands after feeding your reptile. Never allow children to handle this food.
Keeping clean around reptiles
You should assume that your reptile is infected with at least 1 harmful bacteria.
Wash your hands and your child's hands after contact with reptiles. Do not touch your mouth after handling your reptile or anything it has touched. Wait until you wash your hands carefully. Teach your child to do the same.
Keep reptiles out of any area where food is prepared or eaten. Use hot water to wash any surfaces the reptile has had contact with.
Only wash your reptile in its own basin. Never use sinks or the bath. Dispose of waste water and droppings in the toilet or outside drain.
Always wear disposable gloves when cleaning:
Wash your hands afterwards.
Use a hot wash to clean clothes that have been in contact with your reptile.
Keeping your reptile healthy
Talk to your vet about feeding and caring for your reptile.
Stress can cause your reptile to shed salmonella and other bacteria.