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Many people with a phobia don't need treatment. Avoiding the object of their fear is enough to control the problem.

But it may not always be possible to avoid certain phobias, such as a fear of flying. You may decide to get professional help and advice to find out about treatment options.

Most phobias are curable, but no single treatment is guaranteed to work for all phobias. In some cases, a combination of different treatments may be recommended.

The main treatment types are:

  • self-help techniques
  • talking treatments
  • medication

Talking treatments

Talking therapies, such as counselling and psychotherapy, are often effective for treating phobias.

Cognitive behavioural therapy has been found to be very effective.

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT)

Cognitive behavioural therapy (CBT) is a type of counselling. It can help you manage your problems by changing the way you think and behave. It can be used to develop practical ways of dealing with your phobia.

The process can involve gradual exposure to your fear, so you feel less anxious about it. This is desensitisation or exposure therapy.

For example, if you have a fear of snakes (ophidiophobia), your therapist may ask you to read about snakes. They may later show you a picture of a snake. They may then arrange a visit to the reptile house in a zoo to look at some real snakes. The final step would be for you to hold a snake.

Exposure therapy works by gradually increasing the level of exposure to your fear. This allows you to gain control over your phobia. As the treatment progresses, you should begin to feel less anxious about your phobia.


Medication isn't usually recommended for treating phobias. This is because talking therapies are usually effective and don't have side effects. But medication is sometimes prescribed on a short-term basis to treat the effects of phobias such as anxiety.

Three types of medication are recommended for treating anxiety.

These are:

  • antidepressants
  • tranquillisers
  • beta-blockers


Antidepressants are often prescribed to help reduce anxiety. Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) are most often prescribed to treat anxiety, social phobia or panic disorder. These can include:

  • escitalopram (Cipralex)
  • sertraline (Lustral)
  • paroxetine (Seroxat)

Venlafaxine (Efexor), a serotonin and noradrenaline reuptake inhibitor (SNRI) may also be prescribed for anxiety.

Common side effects of these treatments include:

  • nausea
  • headaches
  • sleep problems
  • upset stomach

They may also, initially, make your anxiety worse and can cause sexual problems.

Clomipramine (Anafranil) is a type of tricyclic antidepressant (TCA) that's licensed to treat phobias. Side effects include:

  • dry mouth
  • drowsiness
  • blurred vision
  • tremors (shaking)
  • palpitations (irregular heartbeat)
  • constipation
  • difficulty urinating

Moclobemide (Manerix) is a type of antidepressant from the monoamine oxidase inhibitor (MAOI) group of antidepressants. It's sometimes prescribed to treat social phobia.

Moclobemide interacts with certain types of food. Read the information leaflet to find out which foods to avoid.

Other possible side effects of moclobemide include:

  • sleep problems
  • dizziness
  • stomach problems
  • headaches
  • restlessness
  • agitation

If you're prescribed antidepressants, it's very important that you don't suddenly stop taking them. Suddenly stopping can cause withdrawal symptoms. Talk to your GP, they can gradually lower your dose.


Benzodiazepines are a group of medicines that are categorised as minor tranquillisers. They include medicines such as diazepam (Valium). These are sometimes used on a short-term basis, at the lowest possible dose, to treat severe anxiety.

Like antidepressants, benzodiazepines should be stopped gradually to avoid withdrawal symptoms.


Beta-blockers are often used to treat cardiovascular conditions such as heart problems and high blood pressure (hypertension). They are also sometimes prescribed to help reduce the symptoms of anxiety, such as palpitations (irregular heartbeat).

Beta-blockers slow down your heart rate and decrease your blood pressure. Propranolol (Inderal) is a beta-blocker that's commonly used to treat anxiety.

Possible side effects include:

  • stomach problems
  • cold fingers
  • tiredness
  • sleep problems

Content supplied by the NHS and adapted for Ireland by the HSE.

page last reviewed: 01/10/2018
next review due: 01/10/2021

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