Group B streptococcus (group B strep) is a common bacteria found in the vagina, urine or rectum (back passage).
It's normally harmless and most people will not realise they have it.
It's usually only a problem if it affects:
- pregnant woman – it could spread to the baby
- newborn babies – it can make them very ill
- elderly people or those who are already very ill – it can cause repeated or serious infections
This page focuses on group B strep in pregnancy and babies.
Group B strep in pregnancy
Group B strep usually causes no harm to you or your baby.
It's not routinely tested for during pregnancy. But some hospitals may offer you a rapid test if your labour needs to be induced or if your waters have broken.
You might find out that you have group B strep after a urine test, rectal swab or vaginal swab during pregnancy.
Risks in pregnancy
In rare cases, group B strep can be passed to a baby during birth and make them ill. Read more about the risk of group B strep to your baby.
Your baby may be at higher risk of developing group B strep if:
- they are born prematurely
- you get a high temperature (38 degrees Celsius or higher) during labour
- you have tested positive for group B strep during this pregnancy
- you get an infection during labour or birth
- you have previously had a baby with group B strep
- your waters break more than 24 hours before your baby is born
Signs of group B strep in women
Women who carry group B strep do not have any symptoms.
If you're worried about group B strep, talk to your midwife or GP.
If you have group B strep
If tests find group B strep, or you have had a baby that's had it before, you may need extra care and treatment.
You may be advised to:
- review your birth plan with your midwife - the safest option may be to give birth in hospital
- contact the hospital as soon as your waters break or when you think you are in labour
- medically induce your labour if your waters break after 37 weeks. This will reduce the time your baby is exposed to group B strep before birth
- have antibiotics through a drip during the labour to reduce the chances of your baby becoming ill
- take a course of antibiotic tablets. This may be needed if group B strep is found in your urine and your GP or obstetrician thinks you have a urine infection
- stay in hospital for longer than planned so your baby can be monitored
Antibiotics used for group B strep are safe to take during pregnancy and birth. Always tell your prescribing doctor if you are allergic to any antibiotics.
If you are breastfeeding
It is safe to breastfeed your baby if you have group B strep.
Complications of group B strep in pregnancy
Complications of group B strep for pregnant women are very rare, but can include:
- urinary tract infections
- womb infections
- sepsis - where infection spreads through the blood
If your baby is diagnosed with group B strep, you will be offered antibiotics during any future births. This is to reduce the risk of group B strep in your next baby.
If you were diagnosed with group B strep during pregnancy but your baby did not get it, your obstetrician and midwife will advise you. They'll usually advise you to be tested for group B strep during your pregnancy as there is a 1 in 2 chance that you could be carrying it again.
Group B strep in babies
In rare cases, group B strep can be passed to a baby during birth and make them ill.
If your baby gets a group B strep infection, they'll usually develop symptoms within 7 days of being born. This is sometimes called early-onset group B strep. It sometimes causes severe health complications.
Babies can also develop a group B strep infection 7 or more days after they are born. This usually means they didn't catch the infection during birth.
A group B strep infection is extremely rare after the age of 3 months.
Signs of group B strep in babies
Signs of group B strep in babies can include:
- feeling limp when held (floppy)
- being sleepy or unresponsive
- not feeding or not keeping milk down
- breathing problems
- high or low temperature
- fast or slow heart rate
- crying a lot
When to get medical help for your baby
Contact your maternity unit or hospital immediately if you notice any of these signs. Tell them you're concerned about group B strep.
If your baby may have group B strep
If your baby may have group B strep, they'll be monitored in hospital. They'll be given antibiotics. If tests show that your baby does not have group B strep, the antibiotics can be stopped.
Your baby may need another test called a lumbar puncture. This is when a sample of fluid is taken from around their spinal cord.
Complications of group B strep in babies
Most babies recover fully. But complications can sometimes cause long term disabilities.
1 in 10 babies with group B strep complications will die from the infection.
Group B strep in newborn babies can cause: