Lots of factors can influence how likely it is for you or your partner to become pregnant. In most cases, having sex is a great place to start your journey to conceiving a baby.
For a woman to become pregnant, a man's sperm need to be placed into her vagina. This usually happens during sex when a fluid called semen is ejaculated from the man’s penis into her vagina.
Sperm usually passes through the womb to reach the fallopian tube. In the fallopian tube, at least one sperm must meet the ovum (egg) for fertilisation to happen.
Frequent sex is the best way to conceive
Have sex every 2 to 3 days to increase your chances of getting pregnant. This may not always be practical. For example, you or your partner may need to travel for work. In such situations, you may decide to schedule when to have sex together.
No particular sexual positions have been proven to improve your chances of becoming pregnant. But any position that allows your partner's penis to penetrate more deeply into your vagina may help. Penetrating more deeply helps ensure that sperm enters the vagina. An example of a sexual position that allows for deep penetration is the missionary position.
Ovulation and the best time to have sex
A woman is more likely to get pregnant if she has sex around the time of ovulation. Ovulation is when the ovary releases an egg which can be fertilised. This usually happens 12 to 16 days before a woman's next period.
It can be difficult to know exactly when a woman is ovulating. Sperm can live for up to 7 days in a woman’s body. Even if you have sex days before ovulation you could still become pregnant.
How to predict ovulation
Ovulation usually happens 12 to 16 days before your next period. If you have regular periods, you may be able to predict when this is.
There are lots of smartphone apps available that could help with this. Apps that collect other information such as your body temperature measurements or cervical mucus thickness are probably more accurate than apps that just use dates.
Your body temperature usually rises when you ovulate and remains high until your next period.
Take your temperature every morning before getting out of bed. You may notice a pattern. A basal body thermometer may be more accurate. This tracks more subtle changes in your body temperature than a regular thermometer.
The fluid from your cervix changes at different times in your cycle. 4 days before ovulation, your fluid becomes wet, slippery and stretchy like egg whites. Once you notice this, you'll know you are in your fertile period.
Ovulation prediction kits
You can buy ovulation prediction kits from the pharmacy but they can be expensive. They test your urine to detect changes in hormone levels that show when you are ovulating.
When to talk to your GP
If you are under 35
Talk to your GP if you are healthy and have not become pregnant after 12 months of trying.
If you are over 35
Talk to your GP after 6 months of trying.
If you or your partner have any health conditions, talk to your GP after 6 months of trying. Do this especially if your health condition needs monitoring or drug treatment.
It is a good idea to visit your GP for a check-up before trying to conceive. Women or people with a cervix should make sure their smear tests are up to date - find out more about cervical smear tests.